LINEAR PERSPECTIVE- (Claire Zhang)
|Application of linear perspective|
A church interior showing the vanishing point
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Over this unit, we learned about the concept of linear perspective by creating two projects: one point and two point perspective drawings.
Linear perspective is a concept of realistically creating the basic three-dimensional illusion of space and depth on a two-dimensional flat surface. The idea of linear perspective along with three dimensionalities started to emerge since Renaissance (14-16 century). This revolutionized the way artists perceive the surrounding world considering the depth of objects rather than just roughly drawing outlines which are commonly found distorted and lacking the sense of three-dimensionality in Medieval art pieces. The principle of linear perspective further helps us understand the composition of contemporary artworks and serves as a building block for learning more complex art techniques.
The following are some key terms and main ideas introduced in this unit:
Depending on the number of vanishing points, the direction where objects extend their depth varies. The closer is the object to the vanishing point, the farther it appears from the viewer.
A horizon line represents the eye-level border of the drawing and is usually invisible. It differentiates whether more of the bottom or the top of the object would be seen. Therefore any object placed above the horizon means that we are taking a perspective of looking up, whereas an object below the horizon line is the opposite.
A set of parallel lines or converging lines (extend from the edges of the objects) appear to converge at the vanishing point(s).
A one-perspective drawing is the easiest three-dimensional drawing. I started out labeling the vanishing point, drawing an invisible compositional horizon line which represents the eye-level and gets crossed with the vanishing point at the center of the paper. Next, I drew different shapes on blank spaces and converging lines joining the edge of the shapes with the vanishing point. Since I drew the outlines with light, technical pencil, I later used the fine marker to draw the final draft and erased the pencil traces. Subsequently, I used vine charcoal of a few different colors (pink, green, purple, turquoise, blue, yellow) for background and used a paper towel and blending stick to blend them. Eventually, I left more space by erasing color charcoal on the surface of the crate-like objects in order show the contrast.
|One-Point Perspective Drawing|
- A 50cm ruler
- Liquid Ink Fine Marker
- An eraser
- Vine charcoal (Yellow, green, blue, turquoise, pink, purple)
- A3-sized drawing paper
- 2H technical pencil
- A blending stick
- A paper towel
By adding another vanishing point in the vision, another variation of three-dimensionality is created. Firstly I drew a horizon line and spot two points at the two end of the horizon line, and then I connected the converging lines to the vanishing points. Based on the lines I drew cubes with edges overlapping the converging lines as well as the window openings of the cubes by a fine marker. I eventually used black ink to color the background to show contrast. Inner cubes are colored with pink, orange, and blue which represent the top, bottom, and side of the vision respectively. On the upper half of the paper above the horizon line, more pink (top) color can be seen. On the lower half of the paper below the horizon line, more orange (bottom) color can be seen. The color blue is always visible. I left the unopened cubes and outer surface white since it looks more simplistic.
|Two-Point Perspective Drawing|
- Pink, blue, orange colored markers
- Liquid Ink Fine Marker
- A3-sized drawing paper
- 2H technical pencil
- A round brush
- Black Ink
For both drawings, I believe that I did well for not only completing the task but also challenging myself to the next level. I created more complex shapes with openings for the one point perspective drawing and made it colorful by blending a few vine charcoals for the background. For the two-point drawing, I challenged myself to color different internal sides of the opening of the cubes. For both drawings I did well illustrate the cubes accurately, erasing the horizon and vanishing points, fully coloring the background, and finding the correct orientation and framing.
For the one-point perspective drawing, I realized that I drew too many crates which filled the drawing so the converging lines are barely visible. For the two-point perspectives, I found it difficult to color the background without accidentally painting a little bit onto the cubes. Therefore I had used some whiteout tape to fix this. Although with some minor imperfection, I believe that these two drawings are successful as a whole, therefore I am proud of my project.
ANALYS'S PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS
One and Two Point Perspective - DrawingSummary
In the one point and two point perspectives, we focused on vanishing points, horizon lines, and converging lines.
vanishing point: where converging lines are directed towards, where objects become smaller smaller and seem to disappear
horizon line: a line situated on the horizon or at eye level
converging lines: lines drawn in the direction of a vanishing point
To show these new learning we completed both a one point meteor-like drawing and a two point floating boxes drawing.
One Point Perspective
Steps for one point perspective:
Choose point on page, this will be the vanishing point.
Near the vanishing point, draw a polygon.
Draw straight lines connecting the corners of the polygon to the vanishing point. The corners nearer to the vanishing point are in front of the corners farther from the vanishing point., therefore surfaces formed from lines drawn from closer points shouldn't be overlapped with lines drawn from farther points.
Continue drawing polygons around the vanishing point. When areas closer to the vanishing point are filled, move farther away.
Draw over lines in ink, or have previously drawn the lines in ink.
Use a pastel and piece of sand paper to dust color onto the paper.
Use a paper towel/blending stick to spread the dust onto the paper, however there is no need to try to cover the polygon top surfaces.
Erase color that may have landed onto the polygon surfaces
Polygon surfaces can be lightened further with white pastels Challenges and Successes
Overall, I found this project to not have too many difficulties. A few small challenges were that I kept drawing sides of polygons that lined up with a converging lines, making it look a bit awkward, and that it was difficult to erase the tops of the polygons in small areas. One success is that I wanted to pastel background to get darker the closer to the vanishing point it was. I feel that I did this well by sanding the darker color closer to vanishing point, even if I could have had more of a gradient.
Two Point Perspective
Steps for Two Point Perspective:
1. Choose one point on the left and one on the right of the paper. The line formed with the two points is the horizon line.
2. optional: drawn a verticalline down the middle. With a ruler, draw line from each vanishing point to along the middle vertical line. Lines can also be drawn extending to the tops and bottoms of the paper
3. choose an area to draw the first box.
a. draw a vertical line to be the corner of the box
b . At the top of the corner draw a converging line in the direction of the right vanishing point
c. At the bottom of the line draw another converging line in the direction of the right vanishing point.
d. Connect the non- corner ends of those lines with a vertical line, and erase excess marks.
e. At the top of the original corner draw a converging line in the direction of the left vanishing point.
f. At the bottom of the original corner draw another converging line in the direction of the left vanishing point.
g. Connect the non-corner ends of those lines with a vertical line, and erase excess marks.
h. You now have two, back to back quadrilaterals. See if they are above or below the horizon line, to see where to draw the top/bottom of the cube. If they are on the horizon line, then the shape can be left as it is.
i.If the shape is above the horizon line draw a bottom to the shape because it is above eye level. If the shape is below the horizon line, then the top is drawn because it is below eye level.
j. If the bottom is being drawn: Draw a converging line from the bottom right corner of the shape to the left vanishing point and draw a converging line from the bottom left corner to the right vanishing point. Where the line meet is the bottom corner. erase Excess marks. If the top is being drawn then use the same process, but from the top corners.
5. Repeat steps a-j for multiple cubes.
6. Paint over non-cube areas with India Ink
7. Add embellishments to the cubes, if desired.
Challenges and Successes
I encountered several challenges while working on this project. I had difficulty in drawing the cubes correctly at first. I kept on drawing horizontal lines going form the corners of the boxes. It took some time to realize there weren't any distinctly horizontal lines in the process at all. I also had trouble with the India Ink because it would leave streaks instead of blending. To solve this, I did some shorter horizontal strokes compiling a vertical line. This generally seemed to work. I also used a larger brush and tried keeping the inkiness more constant. Some successes I think were the embellishment on the buildings. I tried to get creative with the windows (alternating doors, corner windows) and I think it looks much more interesting because of it. At, first I was a bit confused on how to draw the shade from the windows, but after looking at the example I saw that the shade was supposed to start from a window corner, and knowing that helped me to get bit more creative.